Social sex Dc

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View all 31 Articles. Impairments in visual perceptual organization abilities are a repeatedly observed cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. These impairments have been found to be most prominent among patients with histories of poor premorbid social functioning, disorganized symptoms, and poor clinical outcomes. Despite the demonstration of ificant sex differences for these clinical factors in schizophrenia, the extent of sex differences for visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia is unknown.

Therefore, we investigated the extent to which ly known correlates premorbid social sexual functioning and disorganized symptoms and a novel factor participant sex ed for performance on two perceptual organization tasks contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion that have ly demonstrated sensitivity to schizophrenia. We also determined the relative degree to which each of these factors predicted task scores over and above the others. Female patients demonstrated higher contour integration scores, but lower performance on the context sensitivity index of the Ebbinghaus illusion, compared to males.

Contour integration performance was ificantly associated with poorer premorbid adolescent social sexual functioning and higher levels of disorganized symptoms, supporting past that indicate a relationship among poor premorbid social sexual functioning, disorganized symptoms, and visual perceptual abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, analyses of Ebbinghaus illusion performance suggests there is a complex relationship among patient sex, clinical factors and perceptual abilities with relatively intact bottom—up grouping processes in females, but greater problems, compared to males with more top—down mediated context sensitivity.

Therefore, sex differences may be an important consideration for future studies of visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by ificant cognitive and perceptual impairments. However, there is a great deal of heterogeneity across patients in terms of types of impairments, levels of severity across impairments Heinrichs and Zakzanis, ; Heinrichs, and functional outcomes Green, ; Silverstein et al. One phenomenon that has shown potential for reliably identifying subgroups of patients is reduced visual perceptual organization.

This is defined as the processes involved in binding stimulus features into meaningful patterns, groupings or object representations. Perceptual organization impairments have been proposed to be part of a widespread impairment in binding related features, and coordinating cognitive activity, across space and time, in schizophrenia Phillips and Silverstein, , Perceptual organization impairments may also be relevant for understanding heterogeneity in the developmental course of schizophrenia as they have been found in patients with histories of poor, but not those with good, premorbid social functioning.

Poor premorbid social functioning has been found to increase the risk for the emergence of disorganized symptoms Wickham et al. A limitation of many perceptual studies in schizophrenia is that few for sex differences in relation to the ificant heterogeneity. However, wide-ranging clinical findings among schizophrenia patients suggest that sex differences should be considered in studies of the disorder. A of reports theorize an influence of sex in the development of schizophrenia pathogenesis Goldstein et al.

Specifically, sex differences in schizophrenia have been associated with premorbid functioning Goldberg et al. Although perceptual organization abnormalities have been linked to factors that are suggested to vary by sex in schizophrenia e. There is reason to believe that sex differences might exist, since sex differences have been reported in non-clinical samples on tests of perceptual organization Phillips et al.

Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether sex differences on tests of perceptual organization exist in a sample of schizophrenia patients, and the extent to which these are related to other aspects of heterogeneity that have been ly linked to both variables e.

The study sample ascertained consisted of 66 male and 43 female patients who met DSM IV-TR American Psychiatric Association, criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Individuals with current substance abuse, mental retardation, neurological disorders, or other primary psychiatric disorders were excluded from the study. Patients were recruited from three levels of care within a vertically integrated system Smith et al. Syndromes were then analyzed based on a five factor model Lindenmayer et al. As disorganization has been shown to be a strong correlate of both perceptual disorganization and premorbid social functioning, disorganized symptoms were characterized in two ways.

The first method is similar to a strategy used in one of our studies where ificant differences in perceptual organization ability were observed when patients were dichotomized, based on the PANSS conceptual disorganization item score Uhlhaas et al. For the present study, participants with a score of 2 or lower i. These groups were then compared using t -tests. For all other analyses, disorganized symptoms were analyzed based on a separate disorganization factor identified by Cuesta and Peralta that is not part of the original PANSS. This factor includes the PANSS items of conceptual disorganization, and poor attention, as well as the inappropriate affect item developed by Cuesta and Peralta.

Each item was scored on a scale of 0 good to 6 poor from early childhood until 1 year prior to the onset of first psychotic symptoms, or 1 year prior to first psychiatric hospitalization if exact age of onset could not be determined.

Scores on 5 domains of functioning were calculated: social withdrawal, peer relationships, scholastic performance, school adaptation, social-sexual aspects of life and an overall mean score Cannon-Spoor et al. Much prior literature has assessed the association of perceptual deficits and premorbid functioning by using the Phillips or Zigler-Phillips scale of premorbid adjustment Zigler, These scales primarily comprise questions about friendships, dating, and marriage. They correspond closely to the premorbid social sexual functioning factor of the PAS, a more current and widely used scale.

Because: 1 our primary interest was in premorbid social-sexual functioning, which we have assessed in past studies and which has been found to correlate inversely with perceptual organization ability; and 2 there are no data to suggest that other aspects of premorbid functioning e. Antipsychotic medication dosages were converted to chlorpromazine equivalents based on published standards Andreasen et al. A Snellen chart was used to ascertain visual acuity estimates for each eye and then both eyes. Handedness was ascertained with a questionnaire about hand preference for different daily tasks including: writing, throwing, using scissors, etc.

Participants were noted as right handed or left handed based on these responses. The Jittered Orientation Visual Integration JOVI task is a test of contour integration that determines a participant's ability to integrate Gabor elements into a perceptual whole. Gabor elements are sinusoidal luminance distributions that are Gaussian modulated Silverstein et al. That is, Gabor elements show lower contrast at the edges compared to the center, and luminance varies from white to black in a gradually alternating fashion Figure 1.

Gabor elements are considered to activate orientation-selective feature detectors in the primary visual cortex Angelucci and Bullier, , and are therefore a useful means to study their integration in early visual processing. Figure 1. JOVI task stimuli. This figure illustrates the stimuli used for the JOVI task. The bottom left and right panels show the catch stimuli included in each block to for participant attention level see text for description of these stimuli. The stimuli presented for this task are based on our recent study of contour integration in schizophrenia Silverstein et al.

Participants were shown static Gabor elements arranged in an oblong shape forming a contour embedded in a display of randomly oriented Gabor elements. For all stimuli, the ratio of the density of adjacent background elements to the density of adjacent contour elements was 0.

Because adjacent background elements were, on average, closer together than adjacent contour elements, perceptual organization processes used to process contours are independent of density cues for this task Silverstein et al. All JOVI stimuli trials were presented for 2 s followed by a 1 s inter stimulus interval during which responses were no longer recorded.

There were 48 stimulus trials per jitter condition which were presented in blocks of 12 trials by condition. One catch trial type had curved lines drawn through the contours to eliminate the need for perceptual organization , and the other contained contour elements without any background elements to remove effects of noise.

The JOVI is a symmetric 1-alternative forced choice task where subjects responded whether the narrow end of the oblong contour was pointing left or right Figure 1. The Ebbinghaus illusion assesses integration of non-target information during target perception, and the resulting change in size perception of the target is thought to result from size constancy Doherty et al. In this task Figure 2 , the perceived size of center circles is modified by the presence of outer context circles: typically, larger context circles make the center circle appear smaller than its actual size, while smaller context circles lead to an enlarged appearance of the center circle Uhlhaas et al.

Figure 2. Ebbinghaus illusion stimuli. This figure illustrates the stimuli used for the Ebbinghaus illusion task. The top panel shows an example of the no outer context trials, the middle panel shows an example of the helpful context trials and the bottom panel is an example of the misleading context trials. In all three panels, the left center circle is 2 pixels smaller than the right center circle. The stimuli used for this task were developed by Phillips et al. Participants were shown two black circles presented on a white background with one center circle pixels in diameter and the second center circle varying by 2, 6, 10, 14, or 18 pixels This corresponded to one center circle having 2.

These center circles were shown with three different surrounding contexts: no outer context, misleading context outer context circles should impair accurate inner circle size discrimination and helpful context outer context should aid accurate inner circle size discrimination. The no context condition had 96 trials: 32 at the smallest size difference and 16 at all other size differences.

The misleading context condition had 80 trials: 16 at each level of inner circle size difference. The Helpful context condition had 16 trials, all at a 2 pixel difference. Stimuli were presented for 2 s with ms inter stimulus interval, in a random order. Subjects responded whether the left center circle or right center circle was larger see Figure 2. Table 1. Demographic clinical and perceptual characteristics based on participant sex. Table 2. Spearman correlations of demographic factors and perceptual task indices.

For multiple regression analyses, in cases where correlational analyses identified ificant predictors of task performance that were predicted a priori e. In cases where correlational analyses indicated ificant predictors that were not predicted a priori , stepwise regression was used to determine the descending order in which these predictors ed for variance in the dependent variable. For the contour integration JOVI task, the mean score across all jitter conditions was used as the performance index since a study suggested higher test-retest reliability for the overall mean score compared to threshold values Silverstein et al.

The correlations between demographic factors and perceptual task indices are shown in Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Spearman correlations of premorbid adjustment scale factors and perceptual organization task indices. The set of factors that were ificantly correlated with lower JOVI scores included: male sex, poor premorbid adolescent social sexual functioning, higher PANSS cognitive factor scores and higher Cuesta and Peralta disorganized factor scores.

Two of these factors, poor premorbid social functioning and disorganized symptoms, were ly associated with contour integration performance Uhlhaas et al.

Social sex Dc

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Sex, symptom, and premorbid social functioning associated with perceptual organization dysfunction in schizophrenia